Data Management Glossary
Cloud costs, or cloud computing costs, will vary based on cloud service provider, the specific cloud services and cloud resources used, usage patterns, and pricing models. See Cloud Cost Optimization.
Gartner forecast that cloud spend will be nearly $600B in 2023 and in an increasingly hybrid enterprise IT infrastructure, cloud repatriation is making headlines: cloud repatriation and the death of cloud only.
Why are my cloud costs so high?
- Compute Resources: Cloud providers offer various compute options, such as virtual machines (VMs), containers, or serverless functions. The cost of compute resources depends on factors like the instance type, CPU and memory specifications, duration of usage, and the pricing model (e.g., on-demand, reserved instances, or spot instances).
- Cloud Storage: Cloud storage costs can vary based on the type of storage used, such as object storage, block storage, or file storage. The factors affecting storage costs include the amount of data stored, data transfer in and out of the storage, storage duration, and any additional features like data replication or redundancy. See the white paper: Block-level versus file-level tiering.
- Networking: Cloud providers charge for network egress and data transfer between different regions, availability zones, or across cloud services. The cloud cost can depend on the volume of data transferred, the distance between data centers, and the bandwidth used.
- Database Services: Cloud databases, such as relational databases (RDS), NoSQL databases (DynamoDB, Firestore), or managed database services, have their own pricing models. The cost can be based on factors like database size, read/write operations, storage capacity, and backup and replication requirements.
- Data Transfer and CDN: Cloud providers typically charge for data transfer between their services and the internet, as well as for content delivery network (CDN) services that accelerate content delivery. Costs can vary based on data volume, data center locations, and regional traffic patterns.
- Cloud Services: Cloud providers offer a range of additional cloud services, such as analytics, AI/ML, monitoring, logging, security, and management tools. The cost of these services is usually based on usage, the number of requests, data processed, or specific feature tiers.
- Pricing Models: Cloud providers offer different pricing models, including on-demand (pay-as-you-go), reserved instances (pre-purchased capacity for longer-term usage), spot instances (bid-based pricing for unused capacity), or savings plans (commitments for discounted rates). Choosing the appropriate pricing model can impact overall cloud costs.
To estimate and manage cloud costs effectively, enterprise IT, engineering and all consumers of cloud services need to monitor resource usage, optimize resource allocation, leverage cost management tools provided by the cloud provider and independent solution providers, and regularly review and adjust resource utilization based on actual requirements. Each cloud provider has detailed pricing documentation and cost calculators on their websites that can help estimate costs based on specific usage patterns and service selections. In an increasingly hybrid, multi-cloud environment, looking to technologies that can analyze and manage cloud costs independent from cloud service providers is gaining popularity.